In Mexico, the term chile is used for "hot peppers", while the heatless varieties are called pimiento (the masculine form of the word for pepper, which is pimienta). Scientific Name - Capsicum annuum Ethnic Names - They are called paprika in some other countries. The powdered form is a key ingredient in various commercially prepared foodstuffs, such as pepperoni (a sausage), chili con carne (a meat stew), and hot sauces. , The Maya and Aztec people of Mesoamerica used Capsicum fruit in cocoa drinks as a flavouring.. Click on a scientific name below to expand it … Origin - Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America and northern South America. It is a perennial, small and herbaceous plant which grows upto 24-48 inches high. The Plant List includes a further 72 scientific plant names of infraspecific rank for the genus Capsicum.We do not intend The Plant List to be complete for names of infraspecific rank. Similarly, Hungarian uses the word bors for the black pepper. Other universities such as UC Davis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Oregon State University have smaller breeding programs. Cheese can also be rubbed with paprika to lend it flavour and colour. fasciculatum Irish. Statistics. Chili peppers are fruit (berries) from a Pepper plant.  The flowers can self-pollinate. The Plant List includes 197 scientific plant names of species rank for the genus Capsicum.Of these 40 are accepted species names. Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum annuum. It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen from August to October. Are chili peppers fruit or vegetable? They may sustain chill injuries if st… Nightshades family, potato family. Hot peppers are used in traditional medicine as well as food in Africa. Family Name: Solanaceae. Domain: Eukaryota. The plants will tolerate (but do not like) temperatures down to 12 °C (54 °F) and they are sensitive to cold. pendulum, which led researchers to believe the two groups belonged to the same species.. Capsicum L. – pepper. Capsicum-Annumm. Learn More. They also brought it to the Spanish Philippines colonies, whence it spread to Asia. The Spanish conquistadores soon became aware of their culinary properties, and brought them back to Europe, together with cocoa, potatoes, sweet potatoes, tobacco, maize, beans, and turkeys. Abundant phosphorus and calcium is needed for the best results. ... Scientific Name. Capsicum annuum can be difficult to separate from the cultivated C. chinense (the hottest pepper) and C. frutescens (Tabasco pepper) and their morphological features can overlap. Phylogenetic relationships between species have been investigated using biogeographical, morphological, chemosystematic, hybridization, and genetic data. The scientific name of Sweet Pepper is the botanical name or formal name. Avoid planting w… Cultivar of the plant produce dark green fruits. Jalapeno pepper (also known as Capsicum anuum) is the fruit of plants from genus Capsicum, members of nightshade family known as Solanaceae related to paprika, bell peppers, cayenne pepper and others. fasciculatum Irish. Peru is thought to be the country with the highest cultivated Capsicum diversity since varieties of all five domesticates are commonly sold in markets in contrast to other countries. In Indian English, the word "capsicum" is used exclusively for Capsicum annuum. Plant seeds in a sunny warm location in peat pots (3 seeds to a pot, thinning to 1 plant per pot) 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting into the garden after all danger of frost is past and night temperatures are consistently at or above 55 degrees F. Plant in full sun in fertile well-drained soil 18 to 24\" apart in rows 18 to 24\" apart. The lack of capsaicin in bell peppers is due to a recessive gene that eliminates capsaicin and, consequently, the hot taste usually associated with the rest of the genus Capsicum. He mentions the upper Golima River valley as being almost entirely devoted to the cultivation of this plant, where it was harvested year-round. For the variety known as "capsicum" in some countries, see, "How to grow chilli pepper / RHS Gardening", "Phylogenetic Relationships of Capsicum (Solanaceae) Using DNA Sequences from Two Noncoding Regions: The Chloroplast atpB-rbcL Spacer Region and Nuclear waxy Introns", "Screening genetic resources of Capsicum peppers in their primary center of diversity in Bolivia and Peru", "Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capsicum species", "NMSU Cultivars - The Chile Pepper Institute", "Capsaicin effects on consumption of food by Cedar Waxwings and House Finches", "Chile Information – Frequently Asked Questions", "Genetic control of pungency in C. chinense via the Pun1 locus", "The Scoville Scale of Hotness - Capsaicin Level", "Giant Marconi Pepper: Smoky Sweet Flavor, Large Fruit", "Italian Frying peppers - Produce Express of Sacramento, California", "Slovník slovenského jazyka z r. 1959 – 1968", Capsicums: Innovative Uses of an Ancient Crop, Capsicum and Chillies: Commercial Cultivation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Capsicum&oldid=992809884, Articles with dead external links from February 2020, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with disputed statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 05:55. Capsicum annuum is a species of the plant genus Capsicum (chillies or peppers and capsicums or bell peppers) native to southern North America and northern South America. This would in turn influence Anglo-Indian and American Chinese cuisine, most notably with the development of British and American forms of curry powder (based on Indian spice preparations such as Garam masala), and dishes such as General Tso's Chicken and Chicken Tikka Masala. They can be sliced into strips and fried, roasted whole or in pieces, or chopped and incorporated into salsas or other sauces, of which they are often a main ingredient. Peppers demand warm weather and dont like their roots disturbed. Paprika (in English) refers to a powdered spice made of dried Capsicum of several sorts, though in Hungary and some other countries it is the name of the fruit as well. The term "bell peppers" is never used, although C. annuum and other varieties which have a bell shape and are fairly hot, are often called "bell chillies". Breeding occurs in several environments dependent on the use of the final variety including but not limited to: conventional, organic, hydroponic, green house and shade house production environments. Dried Capsicum annuum Red Chilli Pepper on Nanglo, Chili pepper 'subicho' seeds for planting, Species of flowering plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, "Comparative study of the effect of paprika processing on the carotenoids in peppers (Capsicum annuum) of the Bola and Agridulce varieties", "Capsicum annuum L. bird pepper - USDA Forest Service", "Flavone C-glycosides from Capsicum annuum L.: relationships between antioxidant activity and lipophilicity", "Red pepper (Capsicum annuum) carotenoids as a source of natural food colors: analysis and stability-a review", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Capsicum_annuum&oldid=986716880, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 November 2020, at 15:55. Capsicum is also used widely in Italian cuisine, and the hot species are used all around the southern part of Italy as a common spice (sometimes served with olive oil). Chicory has bitter leaves and is closely related to Endive. Capsicum (/ˈkæpsɪkəm/) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. They are suitable for stuffing with fillings such as cheese, meat, or rice. Here are common names of Capsicum: Capsicum in German: Capsicum Capsicum in French: Capsicum The Capsicum annuum and Capsicum chinense genomes were completed in 2014. Although black pepper causes a similar burning sensation, it is caused by a different substance—piperine. For black pepper, Czech uses pepř, while Slovak uses čierne korenie (literally, black spice) or, dialectally, piepor.. In the United States, the common heatless varieties are referred to as "bell peppers", "sweet peppers", "red/green/etc. Its species are native to the Americas, where they have been cultivated for thousands of years. Shimla, incidentally, is a popular hill-station in India (and mirch means chilli in local languages). A few of the non-domesticated species are 2n=2x=32. In Switzerland, though, the condiment powder made from capsicum is called Paprika (German language regions) and paprica (French and Italian language region). Clinical Summary. Jamaican) curries. CAFR7. Ornamental varieties tend to have unusually colored fruit and foliage with colors such as black and purple being notable. This species is the most common and extensively cultivated of the five domesticated capsicums. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Its most valuable application appears however to be in cynanche maligna (acute diphtheria) and scarlatina maligna (malignant Scarlet fever, used either as a gargle or administered internally.).  English botanist John Lindley described C. annuum in his 1838 Flora Medica thus:, It is employed in medicine, in combination with Cinchona in intermittent and lethargic affections, and also in atonic gout, dyspepsia accompanied by flatulence, tympanitis, paralysis etc. In Polish, the term pieprz (pepper) instead means only grains or ground black pepper (incl. Also, fruit and spice can be attributed as papryka ostra (hot pepper) or papryka słodka (sweet pepper). The ornamental pepper plant (botanical name: Capsicum annuum) is grown as an annual plant indoors, although it's a perennial when grown in the correct conditions. Paprika is also an important ingredient in rice dishes, and plays a definitive role in squid Galician style (polbo á feira). The most recognized Capsicum without capsaicin is the bell pepper, a cultivar of Capsicum annuum, which has a zero rating on the Scoville scale. Preferred Common Name. Bolivia is considered to be the country where the largest diversity of wild Capsicum peppers are consumed. Many vegetable seed companies breed different types of peppers as well. The anthers do not release pollen except via buzz pollination, such as provided by bumble bees.. Fruits of Capsicum can vary tremendously in color, shape, and size both between and within species, which has led to confusion over the relationships among taxa. Capsicum L. – pepper. Capsicum was first described in the mid-1400s by a physician who accompanied Columbus to the West Indies. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). Buy fresh harvest featuring firm, bright fruits feeling heavy for their size.Avoid excessively soft, lusterless, pale green color peppers. All are edible, and most (like 'Royal Black') are hot. The name given to the Capsicum fruits varies between English-speaking countries. The only capsicum without any capsaicin, and therefore no heat, is the bell pepper. General Information Scientific name: Capsicum annuumPronunciation: KAP-sick-um AN-yoo-umCommon name(s): ornamental pepper, bush red pepperFamily: SolanaceaePlant type: annualUSDA hardiness zones: all zones (Fig. This was of some importance during dietary restrictions for religious reasons, such as Lent in Christian countries.  In the past, some woody forms of this species have been called C. frutescens, but the features that were used to distinguish those forms appear in many populations of C. annuum and are not consistently recognizable features in C. frutescens species. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. In French, capsicum is called poivron for sweet varieties and piment for hot ones. The potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae such as pepper plants. Several breeding programs are being conducted by corporations and universities. Extracts can be made and incorporated into hot sauces. Many types of peppers have been bred for heat, size, and yield.  Extremely moist soils can cause seedlings to "damp-off" and reduce germination. The cayenne pepper - the name of the plant and the paprika-like red fruits harvested from it - is native to tropical South and Central America and it is now farmed in the entire tropical belt of the earth. In Italy and the Italian- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the sweet varieties are called peperone and the hot varieties peperoncino (literally "small pepper"). Taxonomic Tree. Preferred Scientific Name. After being introduced by the Portuguese, chile peppers saw widespread adoption throughout South, Southeast, and East Asia, especially in India, Thailand, Vietnam, China, and Korea. The Portuguese brought them to their African and Asiatic possessions such as India. The word capsicum, comes from the Greek kopto, meaning “I bite.”. , Although the species name annuum means “annual” (from the Latin annus "year"), the plant is not an annual but is frost tender. Capsicum is a genus of plants from the nightshade family ().Some of these plants are used as spices, vegetables, or drugs.The fruit of Capsicum plants have a variety of names. Capsicum frutescens. Cayenne pepper, Chili - Capsicum frutescens L. s.l. Ideal growing conditions for peppers include a sunny position with warm, loamy soil, ideally 21 to 29 °C (70 to 84 °F), that is moist but not waterlogged. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). In Argentina and Spain, the variety C. chacoense is commonly known as "putaparió", a slang expression equivalent to "damn it", probably due to its extra-hot flavour. Common naming in English falls generally in line with the flavor and size of the variant. The amount of capsaicin in hot peppers varies significantly among varieties, and is measured in Scoville heat units (SHU). cayenne pepper.  Cornell University has worked to develop regionally adapted varieties that work better in cooler, damper climates. There are different types of peppers, and we used them as food vegetables, spices, and in medicine. Subordinate Taxa. Only Capsicum frutescens L. and Capsicum annuum L. are Generally recognized as safe.. Datura stramonium; Lycopersicon esculentum var. Chemosystematic studies helped disting… Capsaicin is present in large quantities in the placental tissue (which holds the seeds), the internal membranes, and to a lesser extent, the other fleshy parts of the fruits of plants in this genus. The species is a source of popular sweet peppers and hot chilis with numerous varieties cultivated all around the world, and is the source of popular spices such as cayenne, chili, and paprika powders. Also known as the Christmas pepper plant. Frozen Capsicum are used in stews, soups, and salsas. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Capsicum.  This species is the most common and extensively cultivated of the five domesticated capsicums. In Japanese, tōgarashi (唐辛子, トウガラシ "Chinese mustard") refers to hot chili peppers, and particularly a spicy powder made from them which is used as a condiment, while bell peppers are called pīman (ピーマン, from the French piment or the Spanish pimiento). Capsicum anthracnose. The seeds themselves do not produce any capsaicin, although the highest concentration of capsaicin can be found in the white pith around the seeds. All the varieties were appreciated, but the hot ones are particularly appreciated because they can enliven otherwise monotonous diets. Chili peppers are of great importance in Native American medicine, and capsaicin is used in modern medicine mainly in topical medications as a circulatory stimulant and analgesic.  There are also other peppers without capsaicin, mostly within the Capsicum annuum species, such as the cultivars Giant Marconi, Yummy Sweets, Jimmy Nardello, and Italian Frying peppers (also known as the Cubanelle). Pepper flowers have nectaries at the base of the corolla, which helps to attract pollinators.  In the absence of winter frosts it can survive several seasons and grow into a large, shrubby perennial herb. Capsicum consists of 20–27 species, five of which are domesticated: C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. Bell pepper, (Capsicum annuum), also called sweet pepper or capsicum, pepper cultivar in the nightshade family (), grown for its thick, mild fruits.Bell peppers are used in salads and in cooked dishes and are high in vitamin A and vitamin C.The large furrowed fruits are technically berries and can be green, red, yellow, or orange. The fruit are berries that may be green, yellow, orange or red when ripe. Aster vegetable family names: Composite family, Daisy family, sunflower family. Cultivars descended from the wild American bird pepper are still found in warmer reg… They can be eaten in salads, like shopska salata; fried and then covered with a dip of tomato paste, onions, garlic, and parsley; or stuffed with a variety of products, such as minced meat and rice, beans, or cottage cheese and eggs. The amount of capsaicin in the fruit is highly variable and dependent on genetics and environment, giving almost all types of Capsicum varied amounts of perceived heat. Capsicum fruits can be eaten raw or cooked. The genus name Capsicum derives from a Greek-based derivative of the latin word ‘kapto’, … They are also frequently used both chopped and raw in salads, or cooked in stir-fries or other mixed dishes. The capsicum pepper contains a chemical called capsaicin that is a powerful irritant. However, at extremely high temperature, 33 to 38 °C (91 to 100 °F), pollen loses viability, and flowers are much less likely to pollinate successfully. 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