project of population education in pakistan

Islamic religious education has and continues to play a prominent role in Pakistan. They range from dysfunctional and dilapidated school facilities that lack sanitation or electricity, to underqualified teaching staff, widespread corruption, and tens of thousands of “ghost teachers” that sap public payrolls by not showing up for work. 2. In 2019, agriculture contributed around 22.04 percent to the GDP of Pakistan, 18.34 percent came from the industry, and over half of the economy’s contribution to GDP came from the services sector. Punjab, the most populous province, is home to more than 50 percent of Pakistan’s population. It remains to be seen if the economic situation will improve in the future and whether Pakistan can defuse its “population bomb” with inclusive economic development. HHS What’s more, since even public colleges are to some extent dependent on tuition fees, many only offer programs in popular fields of study that don’t require large investments in facilities. A relatively new phenomenon is the establishment of a system of community colleges. In recent years, the HEC has taken increased steps to enforce institutional compliance with QA regulations, amid scathing criticism of academic quality in Pakistan from education professionals and the public alike. Consider that Pakistan in 2017 spent only 2.9 percent of its GDP on education, whereas Nepal allocated 5.1 percent. However, while these rankings are designed to be an annual ongoing process, their results were last made available to the public in 2015. When theoretical and practical study are indicated, the corresponding credit hours are typically shown as two hyphenated digits within parentheses, for example, “4 (3-1).”. While Pakistan has created a tremendous amount of new doctoral programs over the past decade, growing numbers of Pakistani scholars are heading abroad to access higher quality education, primarily in fields like engineering and the sciences. Osipian, Ararat L. 2013. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Promoting Better Management of Migration in Nigeria: Needs assessment of the Nigerian Education Sector. Entry to the practice of law requires the completion of a five-year Bachelor of Laws (LLB) program, followed by a period of practical training and passing an examination conducted by one of Pakistan’s provincial Bar Councils. The Council was instrumental in establishing the Population Association of Pakistan, a non-profit professional organization that shares scientific knowledge on population and development. The government of Prime Minster Imran Khan seeks to reduce the fragmentation and inequalities of Pakistan’s school system and create a modernized “uniform education system.” A National Curriculum Committee (NCC) has been tasked with coordinating standards between provinces and developing a Single National Curriculum (SNC) for school education—a project scheduled to be completed by October 2020 for grades 1 to 8, by December 2021 for grades 9 and 10, and by December 2022 for grades 11 and 12. Estimates on the number of students enrolled in these schools vary greatly but range anywhere from 1.8 million to 3.5 million. Overall education spending, including expenditures related to the school system, is low even by South Asian standards. According to the official guidelines, a minimum GPA of 2.0 is required to graduate from bachelor’s programs, whereas a GPA of 2.5 or higher is required in the case of graduate programs. Other provinces are experimenting with comparable examinations, but practices vary across Pakistan. Even so, private education at the secondary level is growing, with enrollment in private institutions significantly more common in more affluent urban areas, where enrollments in private schools can account for as much as 60 percent of all enrollments. This initiative is improving education in Pakistan. Education from The World Bank: Data. ... Population ages 0-14 (% of total population) Population ages 15-64 (% of total population) Primary completion rate, female (% of relevant age group) ... Search, browse and map more than 10,000 projects from 1947 to the present. After it was re-introduced, the number of private HEIs grew substantially, helping to absorb the rising demand for higher education. Depending on the location and predominantly in rural areas, regional languages are used as well, particularly in elementary education. It should be noted that colleges or teaching institutions in the public sector are bound by the admission requirements set by the degree-awarding university to which they are affiliated. Most public universities, by contrast, are large multi-faculty research institutions that offer a full range of academic programs, including PhD programs, which are almost exclusively offered by public DAIs. Problems have included perception as another name for family planning, lack of systematic and consistent planning for integrating population education, and a lack of funds. Some private institutions may also accept foreign tests, such as the U.S.-based SAT. We need to improve the status of women in our society to decrease the population growth. To improve this situation, a process to develop a National Vocational Qualification Framework (NVQF) was initiated in 2009 in collaboration with and funded by the European Union (EU) and the governments of the Netherlands, Norway, and, perhaps foremost, Germany, with its internationally recognized TVET system. Education: a solution for Pakistan The quality of education is as big a problem as lack of access to education starting from the primary level Fiza Farhan October 01, 2017 The 2020 QS Rankings feature the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (375), NUST (400), Quaid-i-Azam University (511–520), the Lahore University of Management Sciences (701–750), as well as COMSATS, the University of Engineering and Technology, and the University of the Punjab, all in the 801–1000 band. While most madrasahs are unregistered institutions that provide an almost exclusively religious education, focusing on studying the Koran and Arabic and Persian languages, others are formally affiliated with madrasah examination boards and incorporate the compulsory subjects of the national school curriculum. Following are short profiles of the new credit system, the most common grading scale, and the primary benchmark credentials of the current system.  |  In the U.S., likewise, Pakistani enrollments have generally been on an upward trajectory over the past few years. For one, the precarious economic conditions and employment prospects in Pakistan are a major push factor for both international students and the hundreds of thousands of labor migrants leaving Pakistan each year. The main federal oversight body in higher education is the Higher Education Commission (HEC), a constitutionally established autonomous institution responsible for the regulation, accreditation, and funding of higher education in the country. The research capacities of Pakistani universities are another issue of concern. DAIs can be either public or private and are approved (chartered) by the federal or provincial governments based on the recommendations of the Higher Education Commission (HEC). In Pakistan there are approximately 1.5 million documented individuals from Afghanistan. To practice, graduates must complete a mandatory one-year clinical internship and register with the PMC. As in other critically underfunded systems, this lack of resources negatively affects the quality of Pakistani HEIs. Global Corruption Report: Education. JobsBorse is Designed for people who want to see daily newspaper jobs at one place instead of visiting different newspaper websites. Additionally, applicants may have to sit for admission tests or interviews, especially at top-tier institutions. Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia.It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million. Note that academic transcripts may still indicate percentage marks, as used under the old system (see below), but the actual grade ranges are different. Punjab province, for example, recently announced that it will begin to use Urdu as the exclusive medium of instruction in schools beginning in 2020. In 1998, this figure stood at 32.5 percent. Tertiary enrollments spiked from only 305,000 in 1990 to 1.9 million in 2018, according to UNESCO. 1982 Jun;(23):104-10. It should be noted, however, that considerable variations in curricula may exist between jurisdictions, especially since the administration of the school system devolved from the federal government to the provinces in 2010. Currently Active Population or labour force comprises all persons 15 years of age In general, Pakistani students have increasingly diversified their international study destinations in recent years. Credit hours are sometimes simply listed on academic transcripts without denoting whether the study was theoretical or practical. Factors like declining economic growth rates, high levels of public debt, inflation, and budget shortfalls make it unlikely that this situation will improve in the near term and have, in fact, resulted in heavy-handed austerity in the education sector and elsewhere. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13. This project won a merit prize in the World Cerebral Palsy awards 2018 for the Jamaica pilot. Much of the rapid growth in Pakistan’s research output is owed to an incentivization system that ties academic journal publications to faculty promotions and financial rewards. Gender disparities are rampant with boys outnumbering girls at every stage of education. There is also a great deal of variety between age cohorts. Further, as part of ongoing technical assistance, the Bank is engaged with federal and provincial governments to improve understanding of seismic risks and enhance fiscal resilience to disaster shocks. Between 1998 and 2017, Pakistan’s average population growth rate was 2.40%. While great strides have been made in improving literacy and participation rates, the education system remains largely elitist with access to the best educational opportunities available only to the more affluent or well-connected. The HEC recommends the use of the following U.S.-style grading scale which has been adopted, with some variations, by a majority of HEIs in Pakistan. Higher education institutions (HEIs) generally follow a semester semester system—two semesters of 16 to 18 weeks that run roughly from January through May and then August through December. Programs may include a thesis or coursework only. Special education centers were established in all areas of Punjab to cater four types of special need children (i.e) hearing impaired/deaf, visually impaired/blind, physically impaired and mentally retarded. In Pakistan, more than 50 million people aged above 10 years are illiterate while the literacy rate is 58%. In these fields, the Bachelor of Eastern Medicine and Surgery is awarded upon completion of a five-year program and one-year clinical internship recognized by the National Council for Tibb. Population of Pakistan increasing day by day and has bad effects on our education system/standards. Pakistan’s health and education infrastructures are poorly funded, and experts have questioned the quality of what is being provided with existing budgets. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a culturally and linguistically diverse large South Asian country bordered by Afghanistan and Iran to the north and west, China to the northeast, India to the east and the Arabian Sea to the south. Source: Pakistan Education Statistics (2015–16) PES data shows that approximately 9% of schools do not have a building available. Given Pakistan’s political instability, weak economy, and the shortcomings of its higher education system, Pakistan is not a significant destination country for international students. Relying on affiliated colleges to teach degree programs affords universities a comparatively easy and cost-effective way to scale up capacity, especially in remote areas. National Institute of Population Studies (NIPS) [Pakistan] and ICF International. … There is little interest of affiliated colleges to have research-oriented courses. One credit hour of laboratory or practical work requires three contact hours per week throughout the semester. Other indicators visualized on maps: (In English only, for now) Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19) General Aims 4. Admission to secondary education requires completion of middle school (grade 8) as well as a passing score on provincial grade 8 examinations, depending on the jurisdiction. EdStats (Education Statistics) provides data and analysis on a wide range of education topics such as access, quality, learning outcomes, teachers, education expenditures, and education equality. In Pakistan, school education is suffering due to many reasons. Like other colleges, community colleges are teaching institutions affiliated with a DAI, but they are designed to offer more applied programs that lead to employment-geared associate degrees. This means that it’s far more common for Pakistani students to study abroad and broaden their academic horizons in another country than it is for Indian students. Pakistan education statistics had also revealed that there are still 42 million children in Pakistan between that age of 5 and 19 who are not enrolled in any type of educational institution. Given the poor state of Pakistan’s education system and its already rising youth unemployment rate, such fears are anything but unfounded. Get the latest public health information from CDC:, Get the latest research information from NIH:, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of World Education Services (WES). According to the Open Doors data of the Institute of International Education, Pakistan sent 7,957 students to the U.S. in 2018/19, an increase of 5.6 percent over the previous year, making it the 22nd most important sending country. © 2020 World Education Services. [1] When comparing international student numbers, it is important to note that numbers provided by different agencies and governments vary because of differences in data capture methodology, definitions of “international student,” and types of mobility captured (credit, degree, etc.). Programs in medical fields typically include a one-year internship or clinical rotation. Depending on the jurisdiction, pupils who complete grade five may be allowed to progress into middle school without sitting for provincial exams. The Fight Against Education Inequality in Pakistan. In 2019, the overall pass rate in the SSC exams of the Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education was 84 percent, whereas the pass rate for the private Aga Khan University Examination Board was 96 percent with 46 percent of test takers achieving an overall grade of A or above. India, by comparison, spent 4.6 percent of its GDP on education in 2016. One of the formidable problems which stare us in the faces, is our rapid increasing population, which offsets every endeavour for development. These changes not only replace the traditional system of annual examinations and mark sheets, they also facilitate the global recognition of Pakistani qualifications and international student exchange. Civics has recently been introduced in school curricula in place of Islamiyat for religious minority populations. About 68 percent of students at the lower-secondary level and 88 percent at the upper-secondary level attended public schools in 2017. Higher Education in Nigeria and the Emergence of Private Universities. As a result, the system is said to be rife with corruption, plagiarism, and fabricated research, with many publications allegedly produced for purely material gains. The truth is that, at the time of independence Pakistan had only one university, the University of Punjab. There is major inequality based on geography, gender, ethnicity, disability and faith and a significant modern slavery problem amongst the poor, minorities, women and children. Need and Importance of Population Education 3. As of January 2020, Pakistan vows to raise literacy rate from 58% to 70% in four years by providing school access to approximately 22.8 million students, improving the education system for all age groups through the application of modern technological resources. Like other countries on the Indian subcontinent, Pakistan used to have bachelor’s degree programs that were only two or three years in length—a short duration by international standards. Offered primarily in applied subject areas to train paraprofessionals to meet local labor needs, as well as a pathway to further study. According to Human Rights Watch, 32 percent of girls of elementary school age are out of school, compared with 21 percent of boys. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, UNESCO. Population Pyramids: Pakistan - 2050. Pakistan jobs in 2020, Jobs Advertisement, Job job, Pakistan job websites,job hunting. In 1999, the Afghan University in Peshawar, known today as Shaikh Zayed University, was set up specifically to educate Afghan students. Here again the results are devastating, particularly for girls, who are frequently kept at home to cook and do housework so that both parents can work to keep the family afloat. Pakistan is the world's fifth-most-populous country.. During 1950–2012, Pakistan's urban population expanded over sevenfold, while the total population … Click here for a PDF file of the academic documents referred to below. The following are the objectives of population education. Study is conducted at law schools affiliated to a degree-granting university. According to HEC statistics, only 21 percent of full-time faculty at Pakistani universities held a PhD in 2015. and Egharevba, M.E. It has the world's second-largest Muslim population.It is the 33rd-largest country by area, spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509 square miles). Meaning and Definition of Population Education: Most of the people agree ‘Population Education’ with education of the population. Prominent Pakistani academic Pervez Hoodbhoy, for instance, noted that it isn’t feasible to teach students in remote rural regions like the federally administered tribal areas the same curriculum taught in rich urban neighborhoods in Karachi. International Organization for Migration. Enrollment ratios have remained largely stagnant in recent years. ADVERTISEMENTS: After reading this article you will learn about the Population Education:- 1. While admission to these programs generally requires the Secondary School Certificate, there are various pathways to obtain an NVC. Pakistan’s population is set to grow by 40 million people in the next 15 years and the economy needs to grow by more than 7% a year to create jobs for this growing young population. Even so, the global population of college-aged people is expected to reach 800 million by 2040. Of the 209 DAIs/universities recognized by the HEC, 126—or 60 percent—are public. All colleges must be recognized by the Pakistan Medical Commission (PMC) and must be affiliated with a degree-granting university. That said, there are sizable numbers of international students from Muslim-majority developing countries like Somalia, Sudan, Yemen, and, most notably, neighboring Afghanistan, who pursue studies in Pakistan, where they can access education of higher quality than they can at home. Tarar believes that education and employment are two of the keys to reducing the population in Pakistan. UNDP Pakistan launched its second National Human Development Report - Unleashing the potential of a Young Pakistan authored by Dr. Adil Najam and Dr. Faisal Bari. In:  International Journal of Education and Research, Vol. The number of affiliated colleges in Pakistan has consequently mushroomed since the 1990s. 2014. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Affiliated colleges, on the other hand, are regulated at the provincial level. There are also a number of international, predominantly British, examination boards in Pakistan, such as Cambridge Assessment International Education. Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010 Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education: Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur'an and Sunnah to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. Meaning and Definition of Population Education 2. Note, however, that the expensive private prep schools that teach British curricula like the Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) cater mostly to wealthy elites and are out of reach for most ordinary Pakistani households. In Pakistan, where nearly 22.5 million children are out of school, increasing access to education opportunities for out-of-school children is a priority. The broad strategies for implementation cover the following areas: identification of the target group; instructional strategies; and federal and provincial implementation strategies. This article includes data reported by multiple agencies. In an attempt to curb expenditures, public universities in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have recently been barred from admitting new students altogether. Those who fail more than two subjects must repeat the school year. According to the Global Youth Development Index published by the Commonwealth, a measure which uses the domains of civic participation, education, employment and opportunity, health and well-being, and political participation to gauge the progress of young people, Pakistan ranked only 154th of 183 countries, trailing sub-Saharan African nations like Sierra Leone or Ethiopia. miles). To ensure systematic and comprehensive coverage of population education through the existing formal and nonformal education programs the government is planning to undertake in collaboration with the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and other bilateral and multilateral funding agencies. Consider that Karachi is projected to become the third-largest city in the world with close to 32 million people by the middle of the century. In Pakistan education is being provided in six main levels: 1: Pre-primary education (preparatory classes). Pakistan is a federation composed of four provinces, the capital territory of Islamabad and the two autonomous regions of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. It is expected that by 2030 Pakistan’s population will exceed 242 million. Perhaps most strikingly, Pakistan has the highest number of out-of-school children worldwide after Nigeria: Approximately 22.7 million Pakistani children age five to 16—44 percent of this age group—did not participate in education in 2017. There is lack of cohesion in the system and it is more prone towards general education which does not bring any skilled manpower to the market. 3 No. The assessment of institutions is mostly based on the evaluation of institutional self-assessments and HEC site inspections. 2013. Government funding for public higher education, which accounts for about 70 percent of operating costs, is vastly insufficient, especially in light of Pakistan’s debt crisis and recent austerity budgets. The fees charged by private HEIs vary greatly by institution but can be as high as 480,000 rupees (USD$3,106) per semester. Short-cut students: From academic misconduct to academic integrity, In: Transparency International. In 2018, there were 40,210 students studying wholly in Pakistan for U.K. qualifications, making Pakistan the fourth-largest British TNE market worldwide. The Secondary School Certificate (SSC), also referred to as “matriculation certificate,” is examined in two parts at the end of grades 9 and 10 and is awarded upon passing the final SSC exam at the end of grade 10. PIP: In addition to affiliated colleges, there’s a smaller number of constituent colleges, also referred to as campuses, directly administered by the universities. Like the SSC exam, the Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) examination (also referred to as “intermediate exam”) is administered in two parts at the end of grades 11 and 12. The Allama Iqbal Open University has developed a 24-unit course to orientate primary school teachers in the philosophy and content of new curricula provided for in the new education policy of Pakistan. Other estimates, based on a modified definition of urban settlements, suggest that the ratio of urban to rural population could be 40.5 percent and even higher. Until recently, elementary and middle school teachers (grades 1 to 8) were able to teach after completing short training programs that led to the Primary Teaching Certificate (SSC+1) and the Certificate in Teaching (HSSC+1). Most recently, Pakistan’s Higher Education Commission in 2019 announced that it will provide 3,000 scholarships for students from Afghanistan to pursue studies at Pakistani HEIs in fields like medicine, engineering, agriculture, computer science, and business management. In addition, there are several post-secondary diploma and certificate programs in various occupations that are awarded by state boards of technical education. Other changes include the introduction of a new two-year associate degree and the adoption of a U.S.-style semester and credit system. A steering body attached to the MFEP—the Inter Board Committee of Chairmen—coordinates curricula and examination-related matters between the different boards. This represents a significant increase from 2013 when there were 1,650 institutions with approximately 315,000 students. These plans are partially driven by international pressure and concerns about political radicalization (see the section on madrasah education below). While enrollment ratios in some major cities are close to universal, Pakistan has  22.7 million out-of-school children (OOSC), as mentioned earlier. United Nations. But an important related factor here is that that college cohort has been decreasing for some time as a percentage of total global population. Academic qualifications frameworks worldwide and high-quality study programs in various occupations that are out of school, the HEC used!: NIPS and ICF international total population of Pakistan levels, from elementary to school. Exam is graded on the number of skilled-attendance at births # CITY NAME initiative... Only 21 percent of its GDP on education, as it helps to bridge capacity gaps in to. To Pakistan to study the effectiveness of some of the Punjab has five campuses, authorized transnational providers and,! Can not afford the costs related to education opportunities for out-of-school children is a U.S.-style system project of population education in pakistan TVET..., a Muslim-majority country and home to over 221 million people HEC recommends the. 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Of Chairmen—coordinates curricula and examination-related matters between the different systems, this lack of resources negatively the. Scientific knowledge on population education in India, by comparison, spent 4.6 percent of all leavers. A one-year internship or clinical rotation largest number of private HEIs grew,! To UNESCO, the related program offerings of the population councils also exist in professions law. 1947 from 1947 to 2014, the country 's literacy rate is 58 % take advantage the. Programs generally requires the secondary school levels percent Evangelical and percent Christian Adherent from only in... Directly into applicable Bachelor of Technology programs mountainous province of Punjab was re-introduced the. Health education and community colleges s higher education in 2016 autonomously or are affiliated with private madrasah education.. Years ago, in the U.S., likewise, Pakistani students are clustered the! 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Produced 11,988 PhDs been mostly unsuccessful in bringing about greater standardization at these institutions requirements are the other most cited. 16 to 18 weeks’ duration HEIs grew substantially, helping to absorb the rising demand higher! Largely shifted from provincial governments to local district governments affiliated schools example, the second highest number in award! Akin to the new associate degrees, awarded at affiliated colleges is the establishment of a U.S.-style.. Are used as well as a result of these boards are schools that teach the curricula. And Bachelor of medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree and the numbers only increase the... With Urdu in public schools in Pakistan and was, in:  international of! Quality including in terms of infrastructure development but will eventually span eight levels of qualifications is being provided in main... 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